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Source of the Danube, Donaueschingen, Black Forest, Baden Wuerttemberg, Germany

Google Translation: The general view of the Danube formed by the confluence of Brigach and Breg a little east of Donaueschingen. A well-known mnemonic for this is: Brigach and Breg bring the Danube feed path. The Danube is therefore no single source, but two headwater streams, which is not unusual for large currents. According to other views, but also the source of the Danube in Donaueschingen Bach or the source of the Breg at Martin Chapel at Furtwangen called Source of the Danube.
The Danube river rises near the Princely Fürstenberg Castle in Donaueschingen. Its source is a so-called karst Aufstoß source, at between 50 and 150 liters of water per second come from the Karst of Baar to the surface, which in comparison to Breg and Brigach is the largest spring discharge. The Danube river flows for several hundred meters into the Brigach, since 1820, he is thereby led underground through the castle gardens. The view that this was the source of the Danube, already existed since at least the 16th Century. Already in 1538, the view was of Sebastian Münster, the true source of the Danube was to be found in Donaueschingen. This definition is arbitrary, which is not unique, however, for example in nearby Schwenningen is the Neckarquelle locates in the park, although the outflow from the Schwenninger Moos is considerably watered. At times, also in the district lying Allmendshofen June Peru source was designated as Source of the Danube. Bach was the source of the Danube in the 18th Century passed. Today it presents itself as a circular basin of which represents 1895, the artist Adolf army a group of figures, which towers above the rim and "Mother Baar" is facing its "daughter", the young Danube, the way. As a tourist attraction, this "source of the Danube" is well known. The source of the Breg is located north of Furtwangen in Martin Chapel at Kolmenhof. The claim, they must be considered as a source of the Danube, is based on geographical and hydrological considerations: In comparison to the Breg Brigach is longer and richer in water, and its source is located higher. The Bregquelle mündungsfernste is the source and origin of the Danube therefore geographically. Therefore, this source is also frequently referred to as the actual source of the Danube. Thus we find in 1847 the following definition in the universal lexicon of the Grand Duchy of Baden: "Danube, the largest river in Germany rises at the Martin Chapel in a wild and remote area of ​​the Black Forest, is beginning Brege ... and forms only in Donaueschingen, where she worked with the Brigach united the Danube. "is for other river systems partially similar approach, then as in the case of the Nile and the Amazon mündungsfernste the source as the origin, but not as in the case of the Ganges. In the past, occasionally also the source of Brigach were proclaimed (as 1719 by Vicar St. Georgen Breuninger at Monastery) as highest spring to Source of the Danube. These views are likely to be motivated mainly locally patriotic and do not find general acceptance. Today is viewed as the beginning of the confluence of the Danube and Breg Brigach on the boundary of Donaueschingen. From there to the mouth in the Black Sea is 2,811 km, of which Bregquelle in Furtwangen of 2857 km. The two sources compared:
• Breg: 46 km long, swell height: 1,078 m, catchment area: 291 km ², at the confluence MQ: 6.0 m³ / s
• Brigach: 40 km long, swell height: 940 m, catchment area: 195 square kilometers, at the confluence MQ: 3.4 m³ / s
The Swiss professor Scheuchzer told the Inn as a source for the highest source of the Danube. In the 20th Century, especially the teachers and the geologist Franz Burgert Irma Oehrlein and her husband Ludwig Oehrlein have dedicated to the study of the source of the Danube. First it was Irma Oehrlein, on the 17th July 1954 saw the Bregquelle Won in Martin Chapel. For a long time had the question of the actual Bregquelle confusion prevailed and they had suspected at Won Briglirain. Ludwig Oehrlein completed the lifework of his wife by science for decades continued to work on the exploration of the Danube origin. By dyeing and preparation of measured values ​​that were based on more than 600 measurements, it was proven that the Bregquelle and thus the origin of the Danube - in other words, the actual source of the Danube - was at Martin Chapel. Already in 1949, had the former teacher at the public school to Furtwangen, Franz Burgert, discovered the right Bregquelle and reported on, but he could provide no scientific evidence. Many other scholars have addressed the question of the origin of the Danube, including inter alia the oceanographer Jacques Cousteau, in 1987 at Martin Chapel turned with his film crew for a week a documentary on the Danube. Also in the literature the issue or the dispute over the true origin of the Danube has been included: Claudio Magris wrote the factory Danube - Biography of a river. Even the state government of Baden-Württemberg had to deal with the source of dispute between Furtwangen and Donaueschingen deal. Thus the then Minister of Agriculture and Forestry 1982 confirmed in a letter to Oehrlein: "Coming back to the questions of the Danube origin may I again confirm that the so-called Danube source in Donaueschingen from hydrological and geographical point of view is not sure the actual source of the Danube ... The Breg can be described as Hauptquellfluß the Danube. "
(Source Wikkipedia)
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